Evolution’s Intelligent Insulin Design

Insulin Is The Minister of Energy and Metabolism

Majid Ali, M.D.

Evolution designed insulin to be the primary organizer of the body’s economy under the direction of the Oxygen King. It stores energy in times of scarcity and expends it in times of abundance. It assures “metabolic rest and recovery” at night and a state of “metabolic awakening” during the day. So, evolution’s design for the rest phase of the pancreas means a dramatic reduction in insulin production, often as little as just one or two units.

Insulin: a Perfect Molecular Dr. Jekyll/Mr. Hyde

In healthy amounts, insulin is a guardian angel of life. In excess, it becomes a molecular monster. Here, I am not merely referring to severe reactions of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) caused by the injection of inappropriate doses of insulin. Nor that insulin is merely a pro-inflammatory hormone when present in excess. Rather, I assert that insulin is a potent toxin when present in excess of physiological needs. I have recognized this for decades for strong clinical, laboratory, and teleological reasons.

Nature evolved the diverse Dr. Jekyll/Mr. Hyde roles of insulin in the image of oxygen. In many ways, the functional versatility of insulin is second only to that of oxygen and its two primal oxyradicals: hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide.

Insulin is one of the ultimate Dr. Jekyll/Mr. Hydes of the body. It is one of the most important spin doctors of human metabolism. As a crucial central computer for the cells, it regulates their generation, development, differentiation, multiplication, and death. It provides the energy needs of the cells, controlling the breakdown of sugars and fats, as well as the production of proteins. To perform these functions, insulin networks with most other cellular computer systems, such as insulin-like growth factors (IGF-1, IGF-2), the mTOR network, and others.


The Jekyll insulin promotes healing by stimulating healthful inflammation. The Hyde insulin promotes disease-causing pathological inflammation.

L The Jekyll insulin strengthens the immune system and prevents immune disorders. The Hyde insulin weakens the immune system and sets the stage for immune deficiency disorders, as well as the disorders of confused immune systems called autoimmune disorders.

The Jekyll insulin is de-fattening. The Hyde insulin is fattening.

The Jekyll insulin reduces susceptibility to infections (as a result of the above). The Hyde insulin increases the frequency and severity of infections.

The Jekyll insulin facilitates normal vascular functions and prevents rises (hypertension) and falls (hypotension) in blood pressure. The Hyde insulin hardens arteries, and sets the stage for heart attacks and stroke.

The Hyde insulin is pro-degenerative disease. The Jekyll insulin is anti-degenerative disease.

The Hyde insulin is pro-cancer. The Jekyll insulin is anti-cancer.

The Jekyll insulin is pro-longevity. The Hyde insulin contracts lifespan.

The Jekyll insulin is de-greasing. The Hyde insulin is grease-building.

In simplest words, the last item (Jekyll insulin is de-greasing) explains all of the above.

What Does a Fasting Insulin Level of Two Units Teach Us?

In healthy people, the fasting blood glucose levels range from 75 to 90 mg/dL and the insulin level, as indicated above, is often less than two units. This means that little, if any, insulin is required to keep blood sugar in the fasting range. Most laboratories consider a fasting blood insulin level as high as 25 units as “normal” —the upper of the normal range of Quest, a major national laboratory, is 28 units (uU/mL). I consider it a serious error since it hides significant abnormalities in insulin regulation. Indeed, a fasting insulin level of over 10 units, in my view, represents a clear evidence of excess insulin and insulin waste. I consider a fasting insulin level of over 20 units as clinically significant hyperinsulinism, indicating a state of insulin toxicity.

Insulin is the most misunderstood hormone among doctors. Insulin excess and waste occurs for two to fifteen years before doctors diagnose Type 2 diabetes. It goes unrecognized because insulin tests are not ordered by doctors. In one series of 4-hour insulin and glucose profiles of 200 patients, I diagnosed seven patients with Type 2 diabetes who had normal fasting blood sugar levels. Like their other doctors, I would have missed the diagnosis if I had trusted fasting blood sugar to exclude the presence of diabetes. I would have also missed insulin toxicity in 181 patients if I had relied on the fasting blood sugar test. Based on my data, I concluded that fasting blood sugar levels are so often misleading that they should not be used to test for type 2 diabetes.

Since more than 95% of people with diabetes have too much insulin (hyperinsulinism), all their cell populations are tormented by the Hyde insulin. Since all diabetes drugs increase insulin activity, the prevailing practice of using incremental doses of such drugs worsens the degree of insulin toxicity. This does not mean that the readers should discontinue their diabetes drugs. Rather, they should create conditions in the body that make the use of drugs unnecessary.

The above facts provide strong support for my following assertions:

Diabetes is not merely a problem of abnormal blood sugar, as most people think;

Nor is diabetes merely a problem of insulin, as professors in medical schools teach;

Nor is diabetes merely a problem of finding the right drug or the right dose of insulin for controlling blood sugar, as most doctors think;

Nor is diabetes merely a problem of avoiding carbohydrates, as nutritionists in our hospitals think;

Nor is diabetes merely a matter of clinical association with excessive weight, heart disease and stroke, as TV journalists assert;

Nor is diabetes merely a matter of warning people about the potential of kidney failure, blindness from retinal hemorrhages, and neuropathy from uncontrolled blood sugar levels;

Nor is diabetes merely a matter of spreading epidemics among all peoples, in all parts of the planet, as epidemiologists tell us.

Insulin: King Oxygen’s Minister of Metabolism

Oxygen is the king of human biology. Insulin is its minister of energy. Insulin is pro-life. Insulin

is anti-life. In small quantities and in its Dr. Jekyll roles, it is a premium growth factor and a guardian angel of health. In large amounts and in its Mr. Hyde roles, it robs health. Insulin toxicity

is a primal threat to human health. It is the primary cause of excess weight and obesity. Insulin is

the minister of metabolism of the Oxygen King of life. Next to oxygen, I recognize Nature’s

intelligence, majesty, and economy more in insulin than in any other substance in the body.

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