Lithium Is A Brain Nutrient Series – Part Seven: Lithium Toxicity

                                                                   Majid Ali, M.D.

For about twenty years, I have considered low-dose lithium (50 to 100 mg daily) to be a useful brain nutrient in the care of patients with anxiety, depression, psychosis, and autism spectrum and related developmental challenges. I first leaned about it from Professor Oscar Krusei of Columbia University, New York, and later of Capital University of Integrative Medicine, Washington, D.C.

Lithium’s healing benefits were known to the ancients for millennia, albeit not in modern chemistry. To cite one example, the water of Lithia Springs in Georgia is lithium-enriched and many of its health benefits have been attributed to it. Lithia Springs were considered by the ancient Native American to be a sacred site. By the late 19th century Lithia Springs was a famous health destination visited by many U.S. presidents, including Presidents Grover Cleveland, William Howard Taft, William McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt. One would have thought ever itinerants Mark Twain would also have visited the place and one would be right. No surprise then that soda drinks of those times would be expected to have used lithium-rich water. That indeed was the case.

Majid Ali, M.D. What Should You Know About Low-dose Lithium Therapy for Depression? www.aliscience.org from Majid Ali on Vimeo.

Low-dose lithium, as described in this series, has no known toxicity. Large-dose lithium therapy as is used in psychiatry to treat bipolar disorder, is an altogether different matter.

High-Dose Lithium Toxicity

The following is the Wikipedia list of adverse effects that have been attributed to high-dose lithium:

Very Common Adverse Effects

>10% incidence) adverse effects of lithium include

Leukocytosis — elevated white blood cell count

Polyuria/polydypsia — increased thirst and urination

Dry mouth

Hand tremor (usually transient but it can persist in some people)

Headache

Decreased memory

Confusion

Muscle weakness (usually transient, but can persist in some)

ECG changes — usually benign changes in T waves.

Nausea (usually transient, but can persist in some)

Vomiting (usually transient, but can persist in some)

Diarrhea (usually transient, but can persist in some)

Constipation (usually transient, but can persist in some)

Muscle twitch

Hyperreflexia — overresponsive reflexes

Vertigo

 

Common (1-10%) adverse effects

Extrapyramidal side effects — movement-related problems such as muscle rigidity, parkinsonism, dystonia, etc.

Euthyroid goitre — i.e. the formation of a goitre despite normal thyroid functioning

Hypothyroidism — a deficiency of thyroid hormone.

Acne

Hair loss/hair thinning

Rare/Uncommon (<1%) adverse effects include

Renal (kidney) toxicity which may lead to chronic kidney failure

Renal interstitial fibrosis

Seizure

Coma

Hallucinations

Erythema multiforme — a potentially fatal skin reaction

Brugada syndrome — a potentially fatal abnormality in the electrical activity of the heart.

Sinus node dysfunction

Transient reduction in peripheral circulation as a whole

Pseudotumor cerebri

Increased intracranial pressure and papilledema

Oedema

Myasthenia gravis — an autoimmune condition where the body’s own defences attack the neuromuscular junction — the gap across which the nerves communicate with the muscles — leading to muscle weakness.

Hyperthyroidism — elevated blood concentrations of thyroid hormones.

Hypercalcaemia — elevated blood levels of calcium.

Hypermagnesaemia — elevated blood levels of magnesium.

Hyperparathyroidism — elevated blood levels of parathyroid hormone.

Unknown frequency adverse effects

Somnolence

Sexual dysfunction including impotence, vaginal dryness, erectile dysfunction, etc.

Flatulence

Indigestion

Gastritis

Abdominal pain

Glycosuria — glucose (blood sugar) in the urine

Decreased creatinine clearance — a sign of impaired kidney function

Albuminuria — protein in the urine another sign of impaired kidney function.

Oliguria — low urine output although excess urine output is more likely.

Changes in taste

Slurred speech

Hypotension — low blood pressure.

Bradycardia — low heart rate.

Nystagmus — involuntary eye movements that can interfere with vision.

Weight gain or loss (gain more common with prolonged treatment)

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